Both Kretschmer’s and Sheldon’s theories linking temperament to ___________ have been discredited.
bumps on the skull
Research has largely been __________ of Buss and Plomin’s hypothesis that temperament types are inherited and stable.
none of the above
Kagan’s research on the development of temperament suggests that differences in reactivity to __________ stimuli predict whether a child will later become inhibited or uninhibited.
Schwartz et al. (2003) used an fMRI machine to record the brain activity of adults as they were shown novel vs. familiar faces. The adults had been identified in childhood as having an inhibited temperament showed more functioning in the amygdale than those who had earlier been classified as uninhibited. This evidence provides support for both the biological basis of temperament and of its ________________.
Because evolutionary psychologists try to understand how a given biological mechanism evolved, their theory is said to be one of __________ causes.
According to evolutionary psychology, certain psychological mechanisms evolved because they helped organisms ______________.
both ‘a’ and ‘b’
neither ‘a’ nor ‘b’
According to evolutionary psychology, psychological mechanisms evolved to solve ___________ problems.
Together, parental investment theory and parenthood probability theory suggest that _____________.
a woman’s “mate value” should be determined by her reproductive capacity
a man’s “mate value” should be determined by his capacity to provide resources
Eagly and Wood’s (1999) reanalysis of data from a multinational study of men’s and women’s preferences in mates indicated that, in society where there was greater gender equality, sex differences in mate preferences __________.
both men and women were more distressed by a partner’s sexual infidelity than by their emotional infidelity
both men and women were more distressed by a partner’s emotional infidelity than by their sexual infidelity
men were more distressed than women by a partner’s emotional infidelity
women were more distressed than men by a partner’s emotional infidelity
In evolutionary psychology, the basic units of analysis are domain-_______, whereas the units of analysis of five-factor theory are domain-_________.
According to the logic underlying twin studies, if __________influence a given personality characteristic, then MZ twins should be more similar on the given personality characteristic than are DZ twins.
A heritability coefficient of 1.00 would indicate that all of the variability in personality is due to __________.
nonshared family environment
By and large, molecular genetic paradigms indicate that personality is best explained by ___________.
According to Clark and Watson’s (2008) model, individual differences in temperament can be summarized in terms of three big superfactors NE (Negative Emotionality), PE (Positive Emotionality), and DvC (Disinhibition versus Constraint. Research indicates that PE is associated with the neurotransmitter ____________ and DvC (and possibly PE) is associated with the neurotransmitter__________.
There is a tendency to think of biological processes as determining personality emotions and behaviors, as if the former is cause and the latter is effect. However, recent findings provide much evidence of the _______of both neural systems and neurotransmitter systems.