Orthography: Bibliography We have compiled a fairly detailed bibliography of works on orthography, ranging from principles underlying orthography development to specific case studies.
We recommend a few works in particular as a starting point.
Cahill, Michael, and Keren Rice (eds.). Developing Orthographies for Unwritten Languages. Dallas: SIL International.
Grenoble, Lenore and Lindsay Whaley. 2006. Orthography. Chapter 6 in Saving languages. An introduction to language revitalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 137-159.
Hinton, Leanne. 2001. New writing systems. In Leanne Hinton and Ken Hale (editors). The Green Book of language revitalization in practice. San Diego. Academic Press. 239-250.
Sebba, Mark. 2007. Spelling and society: The culture and politics of orthography around the world. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Seifart, Frank. 2006. Orthography development. In Jost Gippert, Nikolaus P. Himmelmann, and Ulrike Mosel. Essentials of language documentation. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 275-299.
The following are simply in alphabetical order.
Adegbija, Efurosibina. 1993. The graphization of small-group language: A case study of Oko. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 102. 153-173.
Baker, Philip. 1997. Developing ways of writing vernaculars: Problems and solutions in a historical perspective. In Andree Tabouret-Keller, Robert LePage, Penelope Gardner-Chloros, and Gabrielle Varro (editors.). Vernacular literacy: A rev-evaluation. Oxford and New York: Clarendon. 93-141.
Bender, Margaret. 2002. From “easy phonetics” to the syllabary: An orthographic division of labor in Cherokee language education. Anthropology and education quarterly 33.1. 90-117.
Berry, Jack. 1977. ‘The making of alphabets’ revisited. In Joshua A. Fishman (ed.) Advances in the creation and revision of writing systems. Paris: Mouton. 3-16.
Bird, Stephen. 2000. Strategies for representing tone in African writing systems. Written language and literacy 2.1. 1-44.
Bird, Stephen. 2001. Orthography and identity in Cameron. Written language and literacy 4.2. 131-163.
Cahill, Michael and Elke Karan. 2008. Factors in designing effective orthographies for unwritten languages. SIL Electronic Working papers 2008-001. http://www.sil.org/silewp/abstract.asp?ref=2008-001
Canger, Una. 1994. A book in an unwritten language. Acta Linguistica Hafniensia 27.1. 79-89.
Coulmas, Florian. 1996. Typology of writing systems. In Hartmut Günther and Otto Ludwig (editors). Writing and its use. An interdisciplinary handbook of international research. Volume 2. Berlin: de Gruyter. 1380-1387.
Coulmas, Florian. 1999. Development of orthographies. In Daniel A. Wagner, Richard Venezky, and Brian V. Street (eds.) Literacy: An international handbook. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. 137-142.
Dawson, Barbara. 1989. Orthogrpahic decisions. Notes on Literacy 57. 1-13.
Derhemi, Eda. 2002. The endangered Arbresh language and the importance of standardized writing for its survival; The case of Piana degli Albanesi, Sicily. IJMS: International journal on multicultural societies. 4.2. 248-269. UNESCO. ISSN 1817-4574. www.unesco.org/shs/ijms/vol4/issue2/art6
Dyken, Julia R. and Constance Kutsch Lojenga. 1993. Les frontiers du mot: facteurs-cles dans le developmmement d’une orthographe. In Rhonda L. Hartell (ed.) Alphabets de language africaines. Dakar: UNESCO Bureau regional de Dakar. 3-22.
Eira, Christina. 1998. Authority and discourse: towards a model for orthography selection. Written language and literacy 1. 171-224.
Ellis, Nick C, Miwa Natsume, Katerina Stavropoulou, Lorenc Hoxhallari, Victor H.P. van Daal, Nicolette Polyzoe, Maria-Louisa Tsipa, and Michaelis Petalas. 2004. The effects of orthographic depth on learning to read alphabetic, syllabic, and logographic scripts. Reading Research Quaterly 39.4. 438-468.
England, Nora. 2003. Mayan language revival and revitalization politics: Linguists and linguistic ideologies. American Anthropologist 105.4. 733-742.
Fishman, Joshua A. 1977. Advances in the creation and revision of writing systems. The Hague: Mouton.
Fishman, Joshua A. 1996. The development and reform of writing systems. In Hartmut Günther and Otto Ludwig (editors). Writing and its uses. An interdisciplinary handbook of international research, volume 1. Berlin: de Gruyter. 1643-1650.
Franchetto, Bruna. 2008. A Guerra dos alfabetos: os povos indígenas na fronteira entre o oral e o escrito (The war of the alphabets: Indigenous people sbetween the oral and the written). Mana 14.1. 31-59.
Frost, Ram and Leonard Katz. 1992. Orthography, phonology, morphology, and meaning. Amsterdam: North Holland.
Gordon, Raymond G. 1986. Some psycholinguistic considerations in practical orthography design. Notes on Literacy, special issue 1. 66-84.
Gralow, Frances. 1981. Some sociolinguistic considerations in orthography design. Notes on literacy 33. 8-14.
Hampton, Roberta S. 1989. Using insights from the naïve literate as a tool in the linguist’s bag. Notes on literacy 14. 21-32.
Henne, Marilyn. 1991. Orthographies, language planning, and politics: Reflections of an SIL literacy muse. Notes on literacy 65.1. 1-18.
Hinton, Leanne and Kenneth Hale (editors). 2001. The green book of language revitalization in practice. San Diego: Academic Press.
Hinton, Leanne. 1998. A history of Yuman orthography. In Pamela Munro and Leanne Hinton (editors). Studies in American Indian Languages: Description and Theory University of California Press.
Hornberger, Nancy H. 1995. Five vowels or three? Linguistics and politics in Quechua language planning in Peru. In James W. Tollefson (editor) Power and inequality in language education. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 187-205.
Hornberger, Nancy H. (Editor) 1996. Indigenous Literacies in the Americas: Language Planning from the Bottom Up. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, Contributions to the Sociology of Language #75.
Joshi, Malatesha and P.G. Aaron (editors). 2006. Handbook of orthography and literacy. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Karan, Elke. 2006. Writing system development and reform: a process.M.A. thesis, University of North Dakota. http://www.und.edu/dept/linguistics/theses/2006Karan.PDF
Katz, Leonard and Ram Frost. 1992. The reading process is different for different orthographies: The orthographic depth hypothesis. In Ram Frost and Leonard Katz (editors) Orthography, phonology, morphology, and meaning. Amsterdam: Elsevier North Holland Press. 67-84.
King, Robert D. 1998. The potency of script: Hindi and Urdu. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 150. 43-59.
Liberman, Isabelle, Alvin M. Liberman, Ignatius Mattingly, and Donald Shankweiler. 1980. Orthography and the beginning reader. In James F. Kavanagh and Richard L. Venezky (editors). Orthography, reading, and dyslexia. Baltimore: University Park Press. 137-153.
Lüpke, Frederike. 2011. Orthography development. In Peter K. Austin and Julia Sallabank (editors). The Cambridge handbook of endangered languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 312-336.
Malone, Susan. 2004. Manual for developing literacy and adult education programs in minority language communities. Bangkok: UNESCO. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001351/135164e.pdf
Mugele, Robert L. 1978. The pedagogical implications of undrsymbolization in orthography. Notes on literacy 24. 22-25.
Mühlhäusler, Peter. 1990. “Reducing” Pacific languages to writing. In John R. Joseph and Talbot J. Taylor (editors). Ideologies of language. London: Routledge. 189-205.
Munro, Pamela and F.H. Lopez. 2003. Can there be a Valley Zapotec Orthography? Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of the Indigenous Languages of the Americas (SSILA). January 2003, Boston.
Nida, Eugene. 1953. Practical limitations to a phonemic orthography. Bible Translator 5. 58-62.
Pike, Kenneth L. 1947. Phonemics: A technique for reducing languages to writing. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Powlison, Paul S. 1968. Bases for formulating an efficient orthography. The Bible Translator 19. 74-91.
Raymond, Mary. 2007. Literacy work in Papua New Guinea: the accidental and the planned. In Peter K. Austin (ed.) Language documentation and description. London: School of Oriental and African Studies. 174-194.
Rehg, Kenneth L. 2004. Linguistics, Literacy, and the Law of Unintended Consequences. Oceanic Linguistics 43(2):498–518
Rice, Keren. 1995. Developing orthographies: The Athapaskan languages of the Northwest Territories, Canada. In Insup Talor and David R. Olson (Eds.) Scripts and literacy. The Netherlands: Kluwer. 77-4.
Rice, Keren and Leslie Saxon. Issues of standardization and community in Aboriginal language lexicography. In William Frawley, Kenneth Hill, and Pamela Munro (editors). Making dictionaries: Preserving Indigenous languages of the Americas. Berkeley: University of California Press. 12-154.
Robinson, Clinton and Karl Gadelii. 2003. Writing Unwritten Languages: A Guide to the Process. UNESCO. http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php-URL_ID=28300&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html
Rogers, Henry. 2005. Writing systems. A linguistic approach. Oxford: Blackwell.
Romaine, Suzanne. 2002. Signs of identity, signs of discord: Glottal goofs and the green grocer’s glottal in debates on Hawaiian orthography. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 12.2. 189-224.
Schieffelin, Bambi B. and Rachelle Charlie Doucet. 1998. The ‘real’ Haitian Creole: Ideology, metalinguisics, and orthographic choice. In Bambi R. Schieffelin, Kathryn A. Woolard, and Paul V. Kroskrity (editors). Language ideologies: Practice and theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 285-316.
Schiffman, Harold. 1998. Standardization or restandaridzation: The case for “standard” spoken Tamil. Language in society. 27. 359-385.
Sebba, Mark. 1998. Phonology meets ideology: the meaning of orthographic practices in British Creole. Language Problems and Language Planning 22:1, 19-47.
Sebba, Mark. 2000. Orthography and ideology: issues in Sranan spelling. Linguistics 38-5, 925-948.
Sebba, Mark. 2000. Orthography as literacy: how Manx was 'reduced to writing'. In Nicholas Ostler and Blair Rudes, (editors), Endangered Languages and Literacy: Proceedings of the fourth FEL Conference, University of North Carolina, Charlotte, 21-24 September 2000. 63-70.
Sebba, Mark. 2003. Spelling rebellion. In . J. Androutsopoulos and A. Georgakopoulou (editors). Discourse Constructions of Youth Identities. Amsterdam: Benjamins. 151-172.
Sebba, Mark. 2006. Ideology and Alphabets in the former USSR. Language Problems and Language Planning 30:2 (2006), 99-125.
Simons, Gary. 1994. Principles of multidialectal orthography design. Notes on literacy 20.2. 13-34.
Smalley, William A. 1964. Orthography studies: Articles on new writing systems. London, Amsterdam: United Bible Societies; North Holland.
Smalley, William A. 1995. Codificaiton by means of foreign systems. In Hartmut Günther and Otto Ludwig (editors). Writing and its use. An interdisciplinary handbook of international research. Volume 1. Berlin: de Gruyter. 697-708.
Stark, Janie P. 2010. Kambari orthography design. SIL e-books. SIL International.
Stebbins, Tonya. 2001. Emergent spelling patterns in Sm’algyax (Tsimshian, British Columbia). Written Language & Literacy 4:2, 163–193
Unseth, Peter and Carol Unseth. 1991. The consideration of non-Roman orthographies in literacy programs. Notes on literacy 29. 16-21.
Venezky, Richard L. 1970. Principles for the design of practical writing systems. Anthropological Linguistics 126. 256-270.
Venezky, Richard L. 2004. In search of the perfect orthography. Written Language and Literacy 7.2. 139-163.
Wiesemann, Ursula. 1989. Orthography matters. Notes on literacy 5. 14-21.