Table of contents of lecture material Theme An object, purpose and tasks of philosophy The Essence of concept «philosophy»



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Table of contents of lecture material
Theme 1. An object, purpose and tasks of philosophy

The Essence of concept «philosophy». Concept world «view», his essence and maintenance. Historical forms of world view. Philosophy as world view. Essence of philosophical world view, value of study of its common to all mankind and national features. Basic functions of philosophy. Intercommunication with other sciences. Philosophy as basis for many sciences. Tasks of forming of new philosophical world view of education of modern man.


Theme 2. Philosophy of Ancient East

East - one of centers of world civilization. Early development of civilization due to Nil, Tiger and Evfrat. Belief of еgyptians. Osiris is god of reign of dead. Embalming of dyings. Pyramids.

Ancient Babylon. Invention of cuneiform letter by sumers. Belief of Babylon people.

Indian philosophy. Orthodox systems is authority of Vedas. To the heterodox systems, to not acknowledging authority of Vedy: charvaka, buddhism and dzhaynizm.

Buddhistic system. Studies of Gautamy of Buddha. Samkhity. Brahmin. Aranyaki. Upanishady.

Anciently Chinese philosophy of XVIII a. B.C. for III v. A.D. Celestial (Jan) and earthly (In). First philosophical schools: daosizm, konfucianstvo, moizm, school of law (legizm), school of in-yan , the school of names and others.



Theme 3. Philosophical views in Ancient Greece and Rome

Becoming and development of ancient greek philosophy, it cosmocentric character. Basic categories of ancient idea: Space, Nature, Logos, Eydos, Soul. philosophy before Socrat. A problem at milet school (Fales, Anaksimandr, Anaksimen). Pythagoras and early pifagoreizm. Geraklit Efesskiy, his studies about dialectics, about oppositions and becoming. Levkipp, Demokrit, their atomistic studies.Problem of atom and emptiness.Determinism problem.

"Classic philosophy" of Ancient Greece.Socrat : his life and character of philosophizing. Moral philosophy of Socrat. Virtue and knowledge.Plato. Studies about "World of ideas" and the "world of things". Cognition as "remembering". Plato about the soul and its immortality.

Studies of Plato about the state.Aristotle. Aristotle about a matter and form. Studies about possible and actual life. Aristotle about the types of "reasons". Social philosophy of Aristotle.

An epoch of hellenism and philosophy of stoicism. Philosophical views are in Ancient Rome. Forming, distribution and influence the western philosophical views of christianity.

Theme 4. Medieval East philosophy

Essence and features of philosophy of early east Middle Ages. Essence and maintenance of islam.

Forming of philosophical idea in Central Asia. Religious-philosophical studies of sufism -tasavvuf, his essence, historical role and value in spiritual life of people of Central Asia. Idea of perfection, connection as souls of man with God, asceticism as a higher purpose is in the studies of sufism.

Philosophy and public idea of early Renaissance (IX - Khiiv.v.), its historical progressive role in development of world culture and science. Public-philosophical and elucidative ideas in Uzbekistan in XVI - beginning of XX vv. Dzhadid’s motion in Uzbekistan, his philosophical and ideological and political reasons.



Theme 5. West European philosophy in Middle ages and new time.

Philosophy of dark Ages is in Europe (V-ХIV а.), it's teocentric character. Idea of God in studies of the sainted Augustine. Nature and man as creation the most high in philosophy of Thomas Acvinsky.

Anthropocentrism and high humanism of philosophy of Renaissance age. Dialectics and natur phylosofy looks of N. Kuzansky and D. Bruno. The new understanding of the world in the studies of N. Kopernik.

Philosophy of New time (ХVII - ХVIII a) - as the new stage is in development of the philosophical idea of New time: Lammetri, Gol'bakh, Helvetia, Didro. Basic lines of philosophy of Inlightening of ХVIII age: V. Voltaire., J.J Rousseau.

German classic philosophy, its place and role in the development of European philosophy in ХVIII - to first third of XIX age: I. Kant, I. Fikhte, F. Shelling,, L Gegel'. Feyerbakh.

Theme 6. Modern philosophy and its basic flows

End of classic German philosophy as completion of the important stage in development of world philosophy. Critical revision of principles and traditions of classic philosophy, origin and becoming of new philosophical studies and conceptions: philosophy of marxism, subjective-idealistic studies (empiriocriticism, empiriomonizm, positivism, neotomizm and other). Becoming of new picture of the world and new thought is in philosophy of XX age. Attitude toward reason and science in philosophy of XX age. Scientizm and antiscientizm.The philosophical ground of ideas of the post-industrial and informative society. Tekhnocrative and antitekhnocrative looks, their philosophical comprehension. Man in the world and the world of man. New raising of problem of man. Life of man and world life. Essence of man, problem of life and death from point of existential philosophy (K'erkegor, Yaspers, Berdyaev, Sartr).

Religious philosophy in the XX century. Neotomism as an expression of western religious philosophy. Modern religious-philosophical conceptions of islam. Their basic lines and principles.
Theme 7. Philosophy of life

World (Universe), his eternity and boundlessness. World as combined reality and as unity of nature and man, financial world and human spirit. Analysis of their unity within the framework of philosophical studies about life. Looks of thinkers of East to the philosophical problem of life.

Basic forms of life. Life of material and his kinds: life of Nature ("first" and "second" nature), life of man, their unity and distinction. Life of spiritual (ideal) and his forms: individualized and the extra individualized spiritual life. Life social as unity of individual and public life. Problem of substance: dualism and monism. Pluralism.

Forming of philosophical concept of matter. Development of looks to the matter in history of philosophy.

Determination of matter and its methodological value for cognition of nature, society, practical activity.

Motion as basis of life and method of existence of matter. Concept of motion and development. Basic forms of motion, their dialectical intercommunication. Motion and rest.

Space and time is forms of existence of matter. Intercommunication of space-time and locomotive matter. Modern science about the difficult system of organization of matter and its structure at biological and social level. Social-organized matter as integral developing system.


Theme 8. Dialectics as studies about development and method of cognition. Philosophical laws.

Dialectics of identity and contradiction in the process of change in reality. Concepts «identity», «distinction», «opposition», «contradiction». Intercommunication between them. Value of dialectics of identity and contradiction for nature and society. I. A. Karimov about contradictory character of changes, about ways and possibilities of resolution of conflicts.



Existence of the world as reality of amount and quality. Concepts «amount» and «quality». Violation of measure passing to new quality. An evolutional way of development and feature of his display is in modern Uzbekistan.

Principle of selfdenial in the process of changes and development. Concept «denials». Dialectics of denial. Succession - as a denial old and forming of new, problems of maintainance in new of elements old and his disappearance. Specific features of succession and update in the process of strengthening of independence. Not creating principle new, not destroy old.

Theme 9. The categories of philosophy

Single, special and universal - are lines of existence and intercommunication of the world. Unit and part, the systems are a structure and element as forms of display of the world structure. Categories «single», «special», «universal», « unit» and «part».

Essence and phenomenon as forms of intercommunication in actual fact. Categories are «essence» and «phenomenon». Their display is in nature and society.

Categories «maintenance» and «form», their display in nature and life of man.

Categories: «cause» and «effect». Feasance of intercommunication of the phenomena as mutual relations between and by cause and effect.

Categories : a «necessity» and «chance», their intercommunication principle of supposition friend - friend. Categories : «possibility» and «reality», their essence and maintenance.



Theme 10. Philosophy of consciousness.

Concept of consciousness. Problems of consciousness in natural science and in philosophy. Consciousness as reflection. Development of forms of reflection. Consciousness is a higher form of psychical reflection of reality.

Biological and social factors of consciousness. Consciousness and brain. Consciousness and social environment. Structure of consciousness.

Reason, senses and will. Consciousness and subconsciousness. (Z.Freyd, K.Yung, E.Fromm). Forms of display of consciousness. Opinion, doubt, persuasion, knowledge, faith. Functions of consciousness. Consciousness and creation.



Theme 11. Cognition. Scientific cognition

Problem of world cognizableness. Subject and object of cognition. Scepticism and agnosticism.

Process of cognition. Perceptible cognition and his forms. Rational cognition and his forms. Unity perceptible and rational in cognition. Intuitional cognition. Creation and intuition. A problem of truth is in philosophy and science. Explanation and understanding. Concept of truth. Truth, estimation, value and their influence on cognition.

Scientific cognition, his essence and specific signs. A fact is a source of scientific cognition. Supervision and experiment. Forms of scientific cognition: problem, hypothesis, theory. Methods of scientific cognition. Analysis and synthesis, generalization and abstracting, induction and deduction, idealization, formalization. mathematization and design. A concept «Information technologies» and their value is in development of society.


Theme 12. Philosophy of man.

Theory of origin of man. Theory of creation. Theory of the natural-historical origin of man.

Modern science about an anthropogenesis. Natural factors are in the origin of man. Labour as central factor of antroposociogenesis.

Modern science about an anthropogenesis. Natural factors in the origin of man. Labour as central factor of antroposociogenesis. Role of language in the process of forming of thought and subject-practical activity of man. Social-moral factors of antroposociogenesis. Correlation natural and public in a man. Philosophy about a purpose and sense of life of man. Life and death is in spiritual experience of man. «Right on life» and «right on death».

Humanity as world association. Unity and variety of history of humanity. Equality and humanism as common to all mankind values. Uzbekistan is in a world association.

Theme 13. Philosophy of nature and society

Concept «nature» and «geographical environment». Natural and artificial environment of dwelling of man. Geographical determinism and geopolitics.

Nature lifeless and living. Modern scientific conceptions about the origin of life on earth. Concept of biosphere. Attitude of man toward living. Life as value.

A role of nature is in development of society. Natural riches of facilities of life and natural riches of facilities of labour.

Influence of society on an environment. Conception of noosfery. Scientific and technical progress and ecology. Global character of ecological problems. A problem of ecology is in Uzbekistan.

Concept «society». Difference of laws of socium from natural laws. Problem of construction of theoretical model of society. Theoretical model and reality. Modern conceptions of understanding of society.

Structure of society. Economic, political, social and spiritual spheres of vital functions of people. Their features and basic descriptions. Features of development of independent Uzbekistan.

Theme 14. Ethics as science: object, object, tasks.

Sense of term is «ethics». Place of ethics in society as philosophical science. Essence is a moral, flows, wide-spread in natural philosophy. Hedonism, evdemonizm, utilitarianism. Functions of moral are in society. Classification of moral. Component parts of ethics. Norms of moral and right. Their intercommunication, differences. Intercommunication and ethics with other publicly - humanitarian, naturally - biological sciences. Value of study of ethics for future physicians.




Theme 15. Basic ethics categories.

Bioethics: principles and problems. Component parts of moral: moral norms and moral relations, national consuetudes, traditions and values. Interrelation of moral with other forms of spiritual life. Moral and right, moral and art. Moral and religion. Koran and khadisy. Medicine and moral. Principles of moral. Patriotism. Humanism. Principles of mutual collaboration, industriousness, unity, idea, word and business. Individual and public ethics consciousness.

Moral practice and activity: interests, valued orientations. Temporal and permanent character of moral relations. regulatory and educate functions of moral.

Moral and policy. Political line-up of society and moral norms. A healthy social environment is a source of leadthrough of peaceful policy in a country.

Development of political, moral culture of people in the conditions of passing to the market economy of Uzbekistan.

Moral and right: intercommunication and interference of moral and right. Similar and distinctive lines of moral and right. Converting of certain legal norms into the norms of moral and conduct is a factor of creation of society with a high culture in Uzbekistan.

Moral and art. Intercommunication and interference of moral and art, their similar and distinctive lines.

Types of art, their orientation on permission of certain ethics problems in society and ideological maintenance. Issues of the day of perfection of national art and ethics values are in Uzbekistan.

Moral and religion, moral and religious consciousness: table of contents and essence. Dialectical unity of ethics and religious education. Subzero moral consequences of attitude toward religion in the conditions of former soviet line-up. A koran and khadisy sources of education morally of mature people in Uzbekistan.

Basic categories of moral. Good and evil. Prosperity is justice. Debt. Dignity. Conscience, Happiness.



Theme 16. Object and tasks of aesthetics.

From history of aesthetic idea of Aesthetics is science about the aesthetic mastering of reality. Place of category wonderful in aesthetics. Aesthetics and art, aesthetics and other sciences. A place of aesthetics in development of free democratic society, its role as a factor of public production in forming of aesthetic culture of man and spiritual enriching of all spheres of public life and practical value for future medicine workers.

A study of the stages of origin, forming and development of aesthetic idea is a primary purpose of aesthetics. Origin of types of art in Ancient Babylonia, Egypt, India and forming of aesthetic ideas. Influence of aesthetics of antiquity on development of science about beauty of the world. Aesthetics of medieval moslem East. Forming of islam and aesthetics of sufism. Specific of aesthetics of epoch of temurides.

Theme 17. Basic categories of aesthetics

Category wonderful and ugly and their development. Wonderful and ugly in a man. Their relativity. Category of elevated, its essence, display in life and art. Categories tragic and comic. A display of categories of aesthetics is in medicine and biology.



Theme 18. Object, purpose and tasks of logic.

Concept Article of logic. Logic is science, studying forms and laws of thought. Basic problems of logic and direction of their research. Object and structure of formal logic and its intercommunication with dialectical mathematical logic. Logic and methodology of logic. Modern tasks of formal logic.

Concepts about logical forms and laws of thought. Concept «Form of thought». Concrete maintenance and logical form of idea. Concept «Law of thought». Laws of thought - principles of correct reflection. Truth of idea and correct formal structure.

Concept as form of thought. Properties and relations are objects as signs of object. General, individual and important, poor signs of objects.

Logical methods of forming of concepts: analysis, synthesis, comparison, abstracting, generalization. A display of logical methods is in medicine. Expression of concept is in a language. Table of contents and volume of concepts. Law of feed-back between maintenance and volume of concepts.

Types of concepts. Single and general concepts. Disjunction and collective concepts. Abstract and concrete concepts, relative and irrespective concepts. Positive and subzero concepts. A display of types of concepts is in medicine.

Mutual relations between concepts. Comparison and are not comparable concepts. Mutual relations between compatible and incompatible concepts, accordance, partial accordance, submission, collateral subordination, identity. Mutual relations between incompatible concepts: opposition, contradiction. Limitation and generalization, his value, is in forming of concepts. Operation of limitation and specification of knowledges.

Theme 19. Judgement. Deduction

Judgement as form of thought. Structure and basic features of judgement. Judgement and suggestion.

Difficult judgements are simple. Structure of simple judgements. Types of simple judgements on maintenance of predicate, to the amount, quality. Determination of volume of terms is in judgements.

Difficult judgements and their kinds. Logical copulas are formative difficult judgements. Conjunctive judgement. Disjunction judgements.

Conditional implicative judgements. Equivalent judgements. Terms of truth of difficult judgements.

Types of modality and modality of judgement. Basic categories of modality: reality, a necessity is a chance. Mutual relations between judgements.

Mutual relations between compatible judgements: equivalence, submissions, partial accordance (subcounterarity). Mutual relations between incompatible judgements: contradiction (counteradictory) and opposition (counterarity). Logical square. General description of deduction. Structure of deduction. Parcels as logical connection between judgements. Concepts «Logical leadingout».

Logically necessary and credible deduction. A display of deduction is in medicine.

Deductive deduction. Deduction on the basis of subjective relations of judgements.

Forms of deductive deduction, deduction from reliable judgements. Deduction acceptance of judgements. Deduction acceptance of judgements. Deduction by transformation, contrasting and to the predicate (logical square).

Structure of deduction of authenticity. Axiom, general rules of syllogism.

Brief syllogism (entimema). Renewal of complete syllogism from entimemy. Polisillogizm and brief polisillogizm (drops litter and epikhereyma).

Inductive deduction. Intercommunication of induction with generalization of results of experience. Kinds inductive mind of conclusion: complete and incomplete induction.Features of complete induction.

Structure of incomplete induction and its feature, kinds are popular induction, scientific induction. Problem of generalizations by induction. Logical probability is a degree of validity of logical generalizations.

Scientific induction and causal intercommunication. Basic features of causal intercommunication. Objective methods of determination of causal intercommunication: method of similarity, method of distinction, method of concomitant changes, method of tailings.

Static generalization, his inductive character. A value of inductive deduction is in cognition. Intercommunication of induction and deduction in the process of cognition.

Essence of analogic deduction. Types of analogical deduction: analogy of feature and analogy of relation. Reliable and unreliable analogy. Terms of increase of probability of truth of deduction in unreliable deduction. Authenticity of deduction in reliable deduction. A value of analogic deduction in cognition. An analogy is logical basis of design value of deduction in medicine.

Theme 20. Problem. Hypothesis. Theory

Problem and its value in cognition. Concept of problem situation. Question and problem. Determination of unsolvedness, kinds and permission of problems. A hypothesis is a form of existence and development of knowledges. Logic the methodological terms of validity of hypotheses. Types of hypotheses: general and private hypotheses. Terms of choice of hypotheses. Stages of forming and development of hypotheses. Claim of hypotheses. Values of experiments in pointing authenticity of hypotheses. Credible estimation of degree of confirmation of hypotheses. Methods of proof of hypotheses



Theory as system of scientific knowledges. Purpose, structure, functions of scientific theory. Types of scientific theories on a display; essence and structure of gipotety - deductive theories. Axiomatic theories.

A value of logic in development, system development and ground of scientific knowledges.

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