Ap psychology

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AP Psychology Carl Jung (1875 – 1961)


Relationship with Freud:

For Jung, libido is the general biological life energy that is concentrated on different problems in life as they arise as contrasted with Freud’s view of libido as primarily focused on instinctual, mainly aggressive, energy. Jung described the libido as the driving force behind the psyche (Jung’s term for personality.)

Components of the Personality

(1) Ego – everything of which we are conscious

(2) Personal unconscious – material that was once conscious but was repressed or forgotten or material

that was not vivid enough to make a conscious impression at first.

The personal unconscious contains clusters of emotionally-laden thoughts called complexes which have a disproportionate influence on behavior.

Some examples include:

(3) Collective unconscious – the inherited predispositions that humans have to respond to certain

events; these come from the universal experiences humans have had

throughout their evolutionary histories.

The collective unconscious is a compilation of archetypes. Some important ones are:

The persona:
The anima:
The animus:
The shadow:
The self:

According to Jung, the goal of life is harmony of the psyche. In order to reach this harmony, the various parts of the psyche must be determined and revealed to the person in a process called individuation. Jung symbolized the self (a fully-integrated psyche) with a mandala.

AP Psychology More about Carl Jung

Jung’s Psychological Types consisted of two general orientations that individuals could take in relating to the world: introversion and extroversion. These types were combined with one of four functions of thought: thinking and feeling (the rational functions), sensing and intuiting (the irrational functions) to generate a personality type. (Remember the Keirsey profile you got at the beginning of the year?)
Stages of Personality Development:
(1) Childhood (birth to adolescence) – libidinal energy is expended on learning things like

walking, talking, and other skills needed for survival. After age 5, increasingly more

energy is expended on sexual activities, peaking during adolescence.
(2) Young Adulthood (adolescence to approx. age 40) – libidinal energy is expended toward

having a job, a family, relating in some way to the community.

(3) Middle Age (about 40 to later years of life) – libidinal energy is focused on wisdom and life’s

meaning, concentrating on the more cultural, philosophical and spiritual aspects of life.

Research Techniques:
Word association – patients were asked to respond to 100 words at a time as quickly as possible

while Jung measured the time it took to respond, the patient’s breathing rate

and galvanic skin response (the electroconductivity of the skin.) He used this

test to determine complexes.

Dream analysis – for Jung, the content of a dream was exactly what it appeared to be. The

purpose of a dream was to compensate for neglected parts of the psyche.

Some other concepts/terms:

Principle of Equivalence: the amount of energy in the psyche is essentially fixed so if too much energy is expended on one component, it is not available to be used on the others. (Conservation of Energy – the first law of thermodynamics)
Principle of Entropy: there is a constant tendency toward the equalization of energy within the psychic system so that all components have the same amount of energy focused on them. (The second law of thermodynamics)
Principle of Opposites: Nearly every concept in Jung’s theory had a polar opposite (unconscious and conscious, masculine and feminine, animal and spiritual, rational and irrational, introverted and extroverted, causality and teleology) and the goal in life to seek a balance between the opposing forces.
Causality: the belief that a person’s personality can be explained in terms of past experiences
Teleology: the belief that human behavior has a purpose so that personality can be explained in terms of the goals and aspirations for the future the individual has
Synchronicity: the “meaningful coincidence” of two independent events that in combination have meaning to the individual experiencing them that would not exist if they occurred separately.

AP Psychology Alfred Adler (1870 – 1937) “Individual Psychology”


His personality theory is based on the idea that all humans are striving for superiority.

He believed that people are not driven by past events, but are looking toward the future (“teleology”)

According to Adler, everyone has feelings of inferiority that they are driven to attempt to overcome in a process called compensation.

He termed the way a person lives his/her life on the way to gaining superiority (including the way

he/she handles problems, interpersonal relations) as that person’s style of life.

Adler believed that everyone has a fictional finalism, the fictional goal to which a person aspires and that the style of life is a means to that end.

Ideally, people are able to overcome their feelings of inadequacy and are able to contribute to society, a phenomenon he termed social interest.

Unfortunately, not everyone reaches the point where social interest is important as a driving force behind his/her actions. Some people develop complexes during their lives. Some complexes include:

(1) the inferiority complex:

(2) the superiority complex:
Adler’s Four Personality Types:

(1) the ruling type – these people are aggressive, dominant, have high energy and are concerned

with themselves and their own striving for perfection

(2) the leaning type – typified by sensitivity, a high dependence on others, low energy; he believes

they are likely to develop high anxiety (to become neurotic)

(3) the avoiding type – these people avoid contact with others, retreat from life, have the lowest

energy and are more likely to become psychotic

(4) the socially useful type – these are the healthy people who show high social interest and energy;

they are optimistic and future-oriented
Adler believed that parenting is exceptionally important and that 3 basic childhood situations could result in a faulty lifestyle:
(1) organ inferiority
(2) pampering
(3) neglect
For Adler, your birth order was very important.
Only children
First borns
Second borns
Youngest children
AP Psychology Karen Horney (1885 – 1952) “Feminist Psychology”

Horney defined neurosis as an excessive need that can cause anxiety if it is not met.

She also believed that a child’s early interactions with his/her parents are especially significant to the personality the person will develop later.
Basic hostility results if a child’s needs for safety and satisfaction are not consistently and lovingly met by the parents.

Basic anxiety is the psychological state that exists when basic hostility is repressed; it is the general feeling that everything and everyone in the world are potentially dangerous.

The 10 Basic Neurotic Needs (considered by Horney to be “major adjustment techniques”)

  • Movement towards people (compliance):

(1) the need for affection or approval

(2) the need for love and a partner to take over one’s life

(3) the need for simplicity and to restrict one’s life within narrow borders

  • Movement against people (aggression):

(4) the need for power, control over others (to predict everything through foresight)

(5) the need to manipulate or exploit others, to get the better of them

(6) the need for social recognition or importance

(7) the need for personal admiration of inner and outer qualities

(8) the need for personal achievement and to be the best at everything

  • Movement away from people (withdrawal):

(9) the need for self-sufficiency and independence

(10) the need for perfection and unassailability
Note: (3) also fits in this category

Horney is likely best known for her concept of womb envy, created in opposition to Freud’s penis envy

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