1. The protagonist of this work attempts to search for El Dorado with Cacambo. Previously, another character in this work contracted syphilis and survived an auto-da-fé. The protagonist of this work was expelled from Castle Thunder-ten-tronckh for kissing Cunegondé, and travels with a man who claims “this is the best of all possible worlds”, Pangloss. For the point, name this satirical novel written by Voltaire.
ANSWER: Candide, or Optimism [or Candide, ou l'Optimisme] 2. A legendary one of these named Grani which went through fire with Sigurd was related to Sleipnir. One of these was a senator named Incitatus and another historically important one, who was ridden by Alexander the Great into battle was named Bucephalus. Robert E. Lee owned a white one named Traveller, who was one of, for the point, what animals which were ridden into battle by charioteers and cavaliers?
3. This deity carried a nut into which he had transformed a goddess who guarded apples while being chased by Thjazi. This god threw the rock that killed Otter and the salmon he was eating, and he became a salmon to escape his pursuers after he caused Hodr to kill his brother Baldr. This god turned into a mare and made a stallion chase him into the woods in order to avoid having to pay for the construction of Valhalla. The son of a frost giant, this is, for the point, what Norse trickster god?
ANSWER: Loki or Loptr
4. During this war, one side’s forces at the battles of Worth and Spicheren were commanded by von Moltke the Elder. The Treaty of Frankfurt ended this war which the libelous Ems Dispatch began. France lost Alsace-Lorraine and saw the end of its Second Empire after losing at this war’s Battle of Sedan. Wilhelm I became king of a united Germany after, for the point, what 19th century war in which Otto von Bismark led a German state to defeat France?
ANSWER: Franco-Prussian War [or Franco-German War or War of 1870]
5. This man succeeded his father, the victor at the Battle of Tertry, as the Austrian Mayor of the Palace. His military successes include defeating Andalusian general Abd al-Rahman, who had recently won the Battle of the Garonne, near Poitiers at the Battle of Tours, for which this man was considered a “Defender of the Faith”. The namesake of the dynasty that ruled France until 987 was, for the point, this Pippinid, the father of Pippin the Short and grandfather of Charlemagne.
ANSWER: Charles Martel [or Carolus Martellus or Charles the Hammer]
6. The first president of this entity was found drunk hailing a cab looking for pizza near the White House in 1995. One failed attempt to form this country succeeded in ending its predecessor’s perestroika. Another leader of this entity amended the constitution so he could remain in power under the position of Prime Minister. Led first by a former mayor of its capital, Boris Yeltsin, then Vladimir Putin, this is, for the point, what large country formed after the 1991 collapse of the USSR?
ANSWER: Russian Federation
7. This man put in place the Edict on Maximum Prices in order to curb inflation. This emperor led the final Roman persecution of Christians. He is not Justinian but, this emperor signed a lasting peace with the Sassanid Empire. His attempt to save the Roman Empire involved promoting Galerius and Constantius as co-emperors. For the point, name this Roman emperor who created the tetrarchy, dividing the Roman Empire into four parts and built a palace in Split.
8. One group that assisted in this action banned the participation of anyone over the age of 40. The man who was considered the “soul” of this action led failed revolts at Chambéry and Turin, and the “sword” of this action led an army of 1000 in a famous campaign. Josef Radetsky suppressed one attempt to perform this action in the 1840’s. Victor Emmanuel II became king after Mazzini, Cavour and Garibaldi succeeded in, for the point, what action which created a country with capital at Rome?
ANSWER: Unification of Italy [or Il Risorgimento, accept equivalents like Italian Unification]
9. One kind of this material gains its strength through condensed carbon nanotubes and is the “Damascus” variety. The “wootz” type of this material was developed in India and Alexander the Great was given a sword made of this material. Another variety of this material can be made by adding chromium. One way to produce this involves removing impurities by blowing air through molten metal, which is known as the Bessemer process. For the point, name this alloy of carbon and iron, which has a notable “stainless” variety.
10. John of Gaunt was a powerful figure in the government of one king with this name because the king ascended to the throne when he was 10. Wat Tyler led a rebellion that targeted one king with this name. Another king with this name was held ransom by the Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI and Duke Leopold of Austria. The third king of this name killed the Princes in the Tower and died at the Battle of Bosworth Field, resulting in Henry VII’s ascension to the throne. For the point, give this name of a certain “Lionhearted” king who was the enemy of Saladin.
ANSWER: Richard [accept Richard I; accept Richard II; accept Richard III, Richard the Lionhearted, or Richard Coeur de Lion]
11. The Drake-Norris Expedition was sent in response to this entity. Pope Sixtus V gave indulgences and permission for crusade taxes to fund this campaign which met troubles at Gravelines. Prior to an engagement with this body, one monarch gave the Tilbury Speech, in which she stated “I have the heart and stomach of a king”. The Protestant Wind was responsible for the destruction of a large portion of this entity. Led by the Duke of Medina Sidona and meant to overthrow Elizabeth I, this is, for the point, what fleet sent by Philip II?
ANSWER: The Spanish Armada [accept Grande y Felicísima Armada or Armada Invencible, literally "Great and Most Fortunate Navy" or "Invincible Fleet"]
12. This island contains the Pennine range of hills which lie near its Lake District, which inspired various poets. The town of Penzance, which Gilbert and Sullivan wrote an operetta about, lies on the southwestern corner of this island in Cornwall. To this island’s north lie the Shetland Islands, home to a unique type of horse. For the point, name this island home to historically significant universities at St. Andrew’s and Cambridge.
ANSWER: Great Britain [do not accept England or United Kingdom]
13. This city was victorious in the naval battle of Drepana, after a general on the losing side threw sacred chickens overboard. Cato the Elder ended his speeches by calling for the destruction of this empire, which was defeated in two wars by men named Publius Scipio Africanus. The battle of Cannae was won by and Zama lost by this empire’s general Hannibal. For the point, name this North African Empire which fought with Rome.
ANSWER: Carthage [or CarthiginianEmpire or Carthago or Qart-hadast]
14. Dizi and shakuhachi are variations of this instrument, and James Galway is a noted player of this instrument. This instrument is the first to play the primary melody in Ravel’s Bolero and it performs the opening chromatic scale in Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun. In Peter and the Wolf and the Volière section of Carnival of the Animals, the bird is represented by this instrument. For the point, name this popular reedless woodwind instrument.
15. One rebellion in this country was led by a man who thought he was the brother of Jesus Christ and believed in the separation of men and women. Another rebellion in this country was led by the Society of Harmonious Fists, who believed that they were impervious to bullets. The open door policy helped establish spheres of influence in this country. Formerly led by the Dowager Empress Ci Xi, for the point, name this country where the Taiping Rebellion attacked the Qing Dynasty, with capital at Beijing.
ANSWER: China [grudgingly accept People’s Republic of China]
16. An archeological site at L’Anse aux Meadows provided evidence for claims about this man. This explorer, whose nickname was “the Lucky,” was prompted by the existence of grapes to name the land he discovered Vinland where he encountered skraelings. This man’s father was exiled, which led to the settlement of Greenland. For the point, name this Viking explorer who discovered Newfoundland around 1000 A.D., the son of Erik the Red.
ANSWER: Leif Eriksson [accept Leif the Lucky before read; do not accept Erik the Red]
17. The New England Journal of Education published President Garfield’s example of this, though one of the earliest was due to Bhaksara, who cut a square into a square and four triangles. Generalized by the law of cosines, this is, for the point, what theorem, which sometimes uses its namesake triples, on right triangles named for a Greek philosopher which reads “a squared plus b squared equals c squared”?
ANSWER: (Proofs of the) Pythagorean Theorem [or Pythagoras’ Theorem]
18. This empire was defeated in a battle where Miguel de Cervantes lost an arm fighting on the side of the Holy League. Prior the naval Battle of Lepanto, this empire expanded into Europe until being stopped at the Siege of Vienna. This empire was nicknamed “the sick man of Europe” prior to World War I, and was once led by a ruler nicknamed “the Lawgiver”. For the point, name this empire led by Suleiman with its capital at the present-day site of Istanbul.
ANSWER: Ottoman Empire [accept Turkish Empire of Turkey]
19. Matthew Brady photographed this man before this man’s Cooper Union speech. In a race for the Senate, this future President argued over popular sovereignty with his opponent. Those debates took place all over the state of Illinois, and featured this man and Stephen Douglas. Although this man lost the Senate race, he would later defeat Douglas for the Presidency in 1860. For the point, name this President of the United States during the Civil War.
ANSWER: Abraham Lincoln
20. Caliph Harun al-Rashid gave this man a gift of Abul-Abbas, an elephant. His father was supported by Pope Zachary in taking the title of king from Childeric III by cutting off his hair. Einhard, this man’s courtier, tells how he saved Pope Leo III from tonsuring and was reluctantly crowned Emperor. For the point, name this prominent member of the Carolingian Dynasty of emperors, a Frankish son of Pepin the Short who became Emperor in 800.
ANSWER: Charlemagne [accept Charles the Great, Karl der Grosse, or Carolus Magnus]
21. This man wrote about a dream in which a man named Victoricus hands him a letter in his Confessio. Guided by that vision, he walked nearly 200 miles from County Mayo and escaped his captors. In one legend, this man drove all of the snakes from his adopted homeland. His namesake day is celebrated on the day of his death, March 17th, and he used a shamrock to represent the holy trinity. For the point, name this patron saint of Ireland.
ANSWER: Saint Patrick
22. This musician who wrote “Masters of War” sang “Maggie’s Farm” as part of a performance at the Newport Folk Festival where he “went electric”. This artist was the subject of the movies Don’t Look Back and I’m Not There. One song by this man says “Once upon a time you dressed so fine” and appears on the album Highway 61 Revisited. For the point, name this artist of “Subterranean Homesick Blues” and “Like A Rolling Stone”.
ANSWER: Bob Dylan [accept Robert Zimmerman]
23. This politician faced an assassination attempt at the Brighton Hotel, and a hunger strike during this person’s rule was staged by Bobby Sands. One war during this politician’s leadership saw the recapture of Stanley, and was fought with Argentina, the Falklands War. This politician was forced to resign by her own party due to opposition to her tax policies. For the point, name this politician who was Britain’s first female Prime Minister.
ANSWER: Margaret Hilda Thatcher [accept Margaret Hilda Roberts]
24. During this conflict, an Egyptian who reportedly had the loudest voice in the world yelled across a bridge of boats over the Danube to Histiaeus. A naval victory was made possible by Aristides’ concession to (pr. thuh-MIST-uh-kleez) Themistocles’ plans at Salamis in this war. In another battle, Miltiades bested Xerxes I’s after (pr. fuh-DIP-uh-deez) Pheidippides ran from Athens to elicit help from Sparta. For the point, name this set of conflicts with battles like Thermopylae and Marathon.
ANSWER: Greco-Persian Wars [or Median Affair, accept Ionian Revolt]
25. This man led the Seventh Army during its retreat at the battle of Megiddo. This man came to power in his country following its independence through the Treaty of Lausanne, and he enacted the Hat Law of 1925 in his country. This man offered education to women and adopted a Latin alphabet with a dotless “i” for his country’s language. For the point, name this first leader of independent Turkey, who was given a name meaning “father of the Turks.”
ANSWER: Mustafa Kemal Ataturk 26. Henri Bourassa opposed conscription in this country in 1917 and 1944, though failing in 1944, as the NRMA was passed under Prime Minister Mackenzie King. This country imposed martial law in a region during the October Crisis, and in 1948 one region of this country held a referendum and decided to become a province instead of independence or US statehood. For the point, name this British Commonwealth nation north of the USA.
27. During the reign of one leader of this country, free copies of his autobiography were given to every newlywed couple in this country. That leader was succeeded by Karl Dönitz. A purge of a paramilitary organization led by Ernst Röhm in this country was the “Night of the Long Knives”. The Afrikakorps was commanded by a general from this country nicknamed the “Desert Fox”. For the point, name this country whose Minister of Propaganda was Joseph Goebbels and whose Luftwaffe was led by Hermann Göring.
ANSWER: Nazi Germany [accept Deutschland]
28. This party’s national convention in Charleston one year saw members walk out and later nominate John C. Breckinridge for President, and later in the 19th century, the South heavily supported candidates of this party such as Samuel Tilden and Grover Cleveland. This party allied with the Progressives to nominate William Jennings Bryan for President. For the point, name this party of Andrew Jackson which opposed the Whigs and later the Republicans.
ANSWER: Democratic Party [accept Southern Democrats until “Samuel Tilden”]
29. This city was home to the Sanhedrin, and Joseph Caiaphas was high priest of this city. This site of the Bar Kokhba and Maccabean revolts saw the “Massacre of the Innocents” of Herod the Great. This city’s Second Temple was destroyed by the Romans in 70 CE. For the point, name this historic capital of Jerusalem, the site of the Temple Mount which is now the site of the Dome of the Rock.
ANSWER: Jerusalem [or Yerushalayim or Aelia Capitolina or Cadytis or Cadutis]
30. One incident connected to this event resulted in the resignation of Elliot Richardson and the dismissal of Archibald Cox, the “Saturday Night Massacre.” G. Gordon Liddy headed a group connected with this event, the Plumbers, who would later evolve into CREEP, or the Committee to Re-Elect the President, headed by John Mitchell. For the point, name this event, a break-in at a DC hotel and subsequent cover-up that caused the resignation of Richard Nixon.