Task: View figure 13. 57 (page 378 of Waugh). Draw the graph and discuss. Task: View figure 13. 57 (page 378 of Waugh). Draw the graph and discuss



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Task: View figure 13.57 (page 378 of Waugh). Draw the graph and discuss.

  • Task: View figure 13.57 (page 378 of Waugh). Draw the graph and discuss.

  • Malthus believed that there was a finite optimum population in relation to food supply and that an increase beyond that point would lead to a decline in living standards and to war, famine and disease.

  • An increase in the population above the optimum limit would therefore lead to war, famine and disease.



Thomas Malthus (1798) proposed his work during the early stages of the industrial revolution when inadequate food and clothing were common features in England.

  • Thomas Malthus (1798) proposed his work during the early stages of the industrial revolution when inadequate food and clothing were common features in England.

  • His argument was that population increases (geometrically) or at an exponential rate if unchecked i.e. 1-2-4-8-16-32 etc

  • Food supply at best increases at an arithmetic rate i.e.1-2-3-4-5-6 etc



Malthus suggested that a rise in population, however small, would mean that eventually population growth exceeded increases in food supply and that yields from a given field could not go on increasing forever and that the land available is finite.

  • Malthus suggested that a rise in population, however small, would mean that eventually population growth exceeded increases in food supply and that yields from a given field could not go on increasing forever and that the land available is finite.

  • He believed the population-resource balance was maintained by various ‘checks’:









Ester Boserup (1965) suggested that an increase in population would stimulate technologists to increase food production.

  • Ester Boserup (1965) suggested that an increase in population would stimulate technologists to increase food production.

  • It followed that a rise in population will increase demand for food and therefore act as an incentive to modify technology to produce more food. In other words, “Necessity is the mother of invention”.

  • As population increases agriculture moves into higher stages of intensity with new methods.



Followers of Boserup argue that food production is much more optimistic than that of a Malthusian, as she claims that food supplies will stay ahead of population growth.

  • Followers of Boserup argue that food production is much more optimistic than that of a Malthusian, as she claims that food supplies will stay ahead of population growth.

  • Innovations such as the ‘Green Revolution’ introduced HYVs to LEDCs who witnessed increased yields from these processes allowing more people to be fed.



Based on closed communities, which apart from the globe, is not the case as migration occurs.

  • Based on closed communities, which apart from the globe, is not the case as migration occurs.

  • Therefore difficult to test these ideas as migration occurs in areas of over-population to relieve population pressure, which according to Boserups’s theory leads to technological innovation.

  • Also Over-population can lead to unsustainable farming practices which may degrade the land e.g. desertification in the Sahel.





Write a paragraph (82-83PRD) stating how the Mauritius case study supports Boserup’s theory

  • Write a paragraph (82-83PRD) stating how the Mauritius case study supports Boserup’s theory

  • Write a paragraph explaining why Ethiopia supports the Neo-Malthusian perspective

  • Summarise the points made by Paul Erhlick (Neo-Malthusian viewpoint) and write a side regarding his views.




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