Standard e Students know how to determine whether a solution is acidic, basic, or neutral. Ca6 McDougal Littell Science Standard e

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Standard 8.5.e 

Students know how to determine

whether a solution is acidic, basic, or


CA6 McDougal Littell Science

Standard 8.4.e 

Students know the appearance, gen-

eral composition, relative position

and size, and motion of objects in

the solar system, including planets,

planetary satellites, comets, and


Standard 8.5.a 

Students know reactant atoms and

molecules interact to form products

with different chemical properties.

What It Means to You

By studying the properties and orbits of planets, moons, and other

solar system objects, scientists have developed theories about how

the solar system formed. The most current theory explains the differ-

ence between the rocky inner planets and the gaseous giant outer

planets, as well as why planets and moons mostly orbit in the same

direction. (Chapters 12 and 13)

What It Means to You

After a chemical reaction, a new substance is formed. During a

chemical reaction, atoms change places with other atoms to form

other compounds. Because atoms are then arranged in a different

way, the new compounds have traits that often are not like those

of the original compounds. (Chapter 9)

Standard 8.5.b 

Students know the idea of atoms

explains the conservation of matter: In

chemical reactions the number of

atoms stays the same no matter how

they are arranged, so their total mass

stays the same.

What It Means to You

Atoms are rearranged in chemical reactions. The number of atoms

does not change. The number of atoms present before a chemical

reaction is the same number present after a chemical reaction.

This is known as the law of the conservation of mass 

(Chapter 9)

Standard 8.5.c 

Students know chemical reactions 

usually liberate heat or absorb heat.

What It Means to You

Some chemical reactions raise the temperature of their surround-

ings. Other chemical reactions decrease the temperature of their

surroundings. (Chapter 9)

Standard 8.5.d 

Students know physical processes

include freezing and boiling, in which

a material changes form with no

chemical reaction.

What It Means to You

You have seen a physical change each time you have left a glass

of ice sit on a table. Eventually, ice melts and turns into water. Ice

and water are the same substance. You can easily turn water back

to ice simply by placing it in a freezer. When you boil water on a

stove to make soup or tea, however, it may seem as if some of

the water disappears into thin air. It really does not. It only has

become a gas and mixed with the air. (Chapter 6)

Standard 8.4.d 

Students know that stars are the

source of light for all bright objects in

outer space and that the Moon and

planets shine by reflected sunlight,

not by their own light.

What It Means to You

Stars and planets appear as bright dots in the nighttime sky. Stars

produce their own light by fusing hydrogen into helium. Planets

and moons do not produce their own visible light. Planets and

moons, including our own Moon, are bright because they reflect

sunlight. (Chapters 12, 13, and 14)


Standard 8.5: Chemical reactions are processes in which atoms are rearranged into different combinations 

of molecules.

What It Means to You

Acids and bases are two types of solution. One way to tell the dif-

ference between an acid and a base is by using litmus paper. Acids

will turn blue litmus paper red. Bases turn red litmus paper blue. A

solution that is neutral is neither an acid or a base. (Chapter 10)

s8pe-standards-ca  1/3/06  6:12 PM  Page CA6


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