Section : Handouts Item 2: Chapter Summary

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Section 3: Handouts

Item 2: Chapter 1 Summary

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World Studies—Period _____

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HO Item 2: Reading Summary Chapter 1

The Beginnings of Human Society


The prehistory of today's society stretches back thousands of years. Progressing from the hunter-gatherers to Stone Age farmers, humans developed new means of producing goods and new methods of survival. Fire and agriculture were key in the prehistoric people's attempt to establish permanent residences, and eventually instrumental in building the first civilizations and cities.

Chapter Outline

Section 1: Geography and History

History is studied in many different ways. Archaeologists study objects found in the ground, caves, and ancient historical sites. If documents are available, historians research and study the written documents of the time to find out what, where, and why events occurred.

Section 2: Prehistory

Significant discoveries aided prehistoric people in their development. The use of stone to create tools, the ability to control fire, and the first attempts at farming were key in the advance of civilization.

Section 3: The Beginnings of Civilization

Hunting and gathering required prehistoric people to move from place to place in order to survive. With the development of farming, however, tribes and clans were able to remain in one place. As populations grew, villages and towns developed. To keep order, rules were made, and forms of government evolved to manage society and provide necessary services.

Beginnings of Human Society—Self Test

  1. Which of the following statements is NOT true?

  1. Top of Form

Having surplus food meant that families could be larger.

Having surplus food meant that some people could do work other than farming.

Having surplus food meant that food could be stored.

Having surplus food meant that crops did not need to be planted every year.

2. Prehistory is the time before humans

appeared on Earth.

began to use tools.

began to farm.

invented writing.

3. Cities formed governments to

keep order and provide services.

ensure that all people were treated equally.

develop occupations for people to keep people employed.

keep track of who was moving into the city.

4. Geography refers to climate, landscape, and

population. culture.

location. food supply.

5. The frozen body of the Iceman was found

on Mt. Kilimanjaro in Africa.

in the Himalayas.

in the Alps.

in the Andes.

6. Archaeologists use all of the following to study prehistoric cultures EXCEPT

writing on stone.



spear points.

7. Kings, priests, military officers, merchants, artisans, and slaves are all examples of people from different




social classes.

8. Ideas and information spread from city to city through


people who were taken captive.


invasions by armies.

9. In some areas of the world, Old Stone Age societies existed

into the first century.

until CE. 1000.

until 2500 BCE.

into the 1900s.

10. Pastoral nomads travel from place to place to

find good places to grow food.

find food for their animals.

find good places to establish trade routes.

avoid having to fight with their enemies.

11. Scientists believe modern humans originated more than 100,000 years ago in


Northern Europe.



12. Fertile soil

has an abundance of rainwater.

naturally contains lots of healthy seeds.

has substances that plants need for growth.

is usually found in shady areas.

13. Which of the following is true about oral traditions?

They were never written down.

They tell about what was important in a society.

They are historically accurate.

They no longer exist.

14. The first metal used by Europeans was





15. To understand societies that existed in the past, historians study

cave paintings.

bones and tools.

written records.


16. The first domesticated animals may have been

camels. sheep.

dogs. donkeys.
17. In the New Stone Age, people began to

use fire to ward off large, dangerous animals.

grow their own food.

make tools.

mine ore.

18. Systems of writing were developed about 5,000 years ago by people in Southwest Asia and


the Americas.


19. Where were early cities most likely to develop?

in protected mountain areas

near large rivers

on open plains where it was easy to see enemies from a distance

where the climate was warmest

20. An artisan is someone who

paints portraits for a living.

is especially good at whatever he or she does.

makes things like baskets or pottery by hand.

is crafty in business dealings.

Primary Source

Of the Situation of Countries

Snorri Sturluson

The Heimskringla, or The Chronicle of the Kings of Norway, was written in Old Norse by Snorri Sturluson. Composed around 1225 CE, it relates the history of Norway through 1177 CE. An Icelandic chieftain and historian, Sturluson was well-known for his storytelling. The following excerpt from the opening of "The Ynglinga Saga" shows how Sturluson combines his historical knowledge with oral tradition and legend.

It is said that the earth's circle which the human race inhabits is torn across into many bights [inlets], so that great seas run into the land from the out-ocean. Thus it is known that a great sea goes in at Narvesund, and up to the land of Jerusalem. From the same sea a long sea-bight stretches towards the north-east, and is called the Black Sea, and divides the three parts of the earth; of which the eastern part is called Asia, and the western is called by some Europa, by some Enea. Northward of the Black Sea lies Swithiod the Great, or the Cold. The Great Swithiod is reckoned by some as not less than the Great Serkland; others compare it to the Great Blueland. The northern part of Swithiod lies uninhabited on account of frost and cold, as likewise the southern parts of Blueland are waste from the burning of the sun. In Swithiod are many great domains, and many races of men, and many kinds of languages. There are giants, and there are dwarfs, and there are also blue men, and there are any kinds of stranger creatures. There are huge wild beasts, and dreadful dragons. On the south side of the mountains which lie outside of all inhabited lands runs a river through Swithiod, which is properly called by the name of Tanais, but was formerly called Tanaquisl, or Vanaquisl, and which falls into the Black Sea. The country of the people on the Vanaquisl was called Vanaland, or Vanaheim; and the river separates the three parts of the world, of which the eastermost part is called Asia, and the westermost Europe.

Highlight the parts that are factual in YELLOW

Use ANOTHER color highlighter for parts that come from myths or legends

In your group, list at least 10 things in the United States that are most likely myths than historical accuracy

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Section 3, Item 1: Chapter 1 Summary Guide Page of

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