Phases of the Moon New 0% Illuminated

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Phases of the Moon

  • New 0% Illuminated

  • Waxing Crescent 25% Illuminated on RHS

  • First Quarter 50% Illuminated on RHS

  • Waxing Gibbous 75% Illuminated on RHS

  • Full 100% Illuminated

  • Waning Gibbous 75% Illuminated on LHS

  • Third (Last) Quarter 50% Illuminated on LHS

  • Waning Crescent 25% Illuminated on LHS

Rising/Meridian/Setting Times

Lunar Periods

  • Sidereal Period – 27.3 days

  • Synodic Period – 29.5 days

    • The time between successive alignments of the earth, moon, and the sun
    • The period of the cycle of lunar phases

Lunar Eclipses

  • Total Lunar Eclipse

    • The moon is entirely inside the earth’s umbra
  • Partial Lunar Eclipse

    • The moon is partially inside the earth’s umbra
  • Penumbral Lunar Eclipse

    • The moon is inside the Earth’s penumbra
    • These happen regularly and no one notices. The brightness of the moon only decreases by 10% to 20%

Solar Eclipses

  • Total Solar Eclipse

    • The moon completely obscures the sun for an observer at this location on the Earth
  • Partial Solar Eclipse

    • The moon partially obscures the sun for an observer at this location on the Earth
  • Annular Solar Eclipse

    • The moon is near apogee and its angular diameter is insufficient to completely cover the sun. An observer for whom the moon and sun are aligned will see a ring of the sun around the moon


  • - caused by differential gravitational forces exerted by the moon (the moon pulls more on one side of the earth than the other)

  • Even though the sun’s gravitational force is much larger than the moon’s, its differential force is smaller (since the size of the earth is small compared to the earth-sun distance)

  • This moon’s differential force causes “water bulges” on the earth on both sides of the line to the moon. Tides are caused by the Earth’s rotation carrying observers through a water bulge. Thus, typically high tide occurs twice a day.

    • Neap Tides – weak tides which occur when the moon’s and sun’s pull are perpendicular
    • Spring Tides – strong tides when the moon and sun are aligned.

Yüklə 455 b.

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