Pbc research report The question of the Central African Republic Student Officers

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Peace Building Commission
Research report

The question of the Central African Republic

Student Officers

Maceo Novica

Vera Tukker

Forum PBC
Issue The question of the Central African Republic
Student Officer Maceo Novica
Position President

This research report is about the situation in the CAR (Central African Republic) and how you as delegates can solve the problems this country has had to cope with. Because there are a lot of things that need to be worked on before we as the UN can declare that the CAR is the independent country it needs to be. Civil wars and heavy fights between the 2 major ethnical groups, containing of Muslims and Christians, are two of the major factors on how this country ended up in this situation. These factors are also the two things which still cause problems to date and will play a major role in how we will solve it.

Definition of Key terms
Civil war
A war between political factions or regions within the same country.
Military coup
The sudden overthrow of a government by a usually small group of persons in or previously in positions of authority.
Central African Empire
This is how the army commander, Jean-Bedel Bokassa called the country after he declared himself as 'president for life'.
Ethnic group
A community or population made up of people who share a common cultural background or descent.
The Lord's Resistance Army, which has perpetrated crimes against humanity, was a violent militia group lead by the famous war criminal Joseph Kony. The AU (African Union) stopped the operation with help of the RCI-LRA. The UN are still are still wary on the fact that a new LRA can develop or the eliminated one can make a comeback, so even though the LRA has been taken care of it can still be a factor which can come back and therefor is an important factor during the debate.

General Overview
The CAR has had to cope with a tremendous amount of problems during the past 57 years. Several coups have been made, a lot of people have died because of those coups and other militia battles which took place in the country it's self. War and corruption were a daily thing and only after the latest UN operation to try and destroy the rotten core of the CAR's political system, improvements have been made. There is some sort of stable government and ex-rebel Jean-Pierre Bemba has been given eighteen years in prison for his militia's abuses in the CAR between 2002 and 2003.
The financial status of the Central African Republic has been horrendous due to the fact that the several civil wars and fights between Christian and Muslim groups have had their effects on the infrastructure, agriculture and on production in general. The CAR has a lot of resources to become a economic wealthy country but they are not in the situation on how they would know to get out of this slump. The main focus lays with national security at the moment but the path to a more developed and peaceful country is walked by economic development.
AA I told you before, the main reason there is such a great amount of tension between civilians in the Central African Republic is because of their differences in faith. There is a big minority group of Muslim immigrants in the CAR and according to Joanne Mariner, a senior crisis response adviser at the UK-based organization Amnesty International, the Muslims in the western half of the country were being repressed and forced to abandon their religion. More than 30,000 Muslims are living in seven enclaves, guarded by UN troops, across the country, but for those living outside, especially in rural areas, they are being targeted with impunity. You will understand that such matter of discrimination and just plain molestation of their believes and opinions will lead to counter measures to protect their faith and culture, even if this has to be in a violent way. Make sure to give this a lot of attention while you try to think of possible solutions because conflicts between Christians and Muslims has been something from all times and it plays an enormous part in this conflict.
Unfortunately, military coups are not a rarity in the history of the Central African Republic. From the countries independency in 1960 until the last one in 2013 the CAR has had a total of five military coups. A lot of different leaders with different believes and different opinions have had the power over this country which caused for the fact that the nation never has been able to fully adjust to the new direction the country had to go according to it's leader. Look at it like a ship which keeps shifting it's direction, if you keep doing so it will stay in the exact same position. The political situation has been far from stable so keep this in mind when you try to come up with solutions because a stable government is a necessity to actually perform the changes you want to make.
But the Central African Republic is on its way to become the governmental stable nation it needs to be. in the month of February in 2016 the democratic chosen president Faustin-Archange Touadera wins presidential election in the run-off after interim president Michel Djotodia resigns over criticism that he failed to stop the sectarian violence. Because of this you can see what those fights between the Christian civilians and the Muslim minorities can lead up to.

Even though the CAR is an independent country, the former colonization by France still has it's effect today. That is why France still feels like it has a certain responsibility towards the CAR. This is also why France was more concerned by the CAR's situation and pledged to sent 1,600 soldiers to disarm the militias. The delegate of France needs to keep in mind that because of this, it still has responsibilities because of the former colonization role.

Dear delegates I hope that if you read this general overview you will know what the major problems are and what we need to solve to make the Central African Republic a success. But, keep in mind that your country does not have to be in favor of helping this country. This is very important to look up when you do your research so we can have debates on why the CAR needs our help or no and if they do what kind of help.

Major Parties Involved
CAR (Central African Republic)
This is the country it is all about and which you as delegates need to help.

UN (United Nations): You do this as a member of the UN where you will try to tackle the CAR's problems through resolutions.

RCI-LRA (African Union-led Regional Cooperation Initiative for the Elimination of the Lord’s Resistance Army)
The organization who is responsible for the elimination of the LRA and who have the most knowledge on this issue. The comeback of the LRA is a big possibility so if you want to try and prevent that you could use the help of the RCI-LRA.

LRA (the Lord's Resistance Army)

The LRA was a rebel group formed by war criminal Joseph Kony. It was a greatly violent organization that wanted absolute control over central Africa. Even though that the treath of Kony is out of the picture you have to be careful for further developments on the LRA due to the fact that the organization still has a lot of support in Africa.
AU (African Union)
The African specialized part of the UN who are responsible for a lot of things in Africa like solving threats of terrorist organizations and other threats.

France used to be the colonial leader of the CAR and therefor is responsible for a lot of problems the CAR has to face. The delegate of France is expected to help the CAR as much as possible without stirring up it's own population and without triggering the CAR's population due to international interference.

ICC (International Criminal Court)
An international crime, an intergovernmental organization, and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands. It is responsible for the imprisonment of Joseph Kony.

Timeline of Key Events
1880s - France annexes the area, partitions it among commercial concessionaires.
1960 - The Central African Republic becomes independent with David Dacko as president. He turns the country into a one-party state.
1965 - Dacko ousted by the army commander, Jean-Bedel Bokassa, who declares himself emperor of the "Central African Empire".
1979 - Bokassa ousted in a coup backed by French troops.
1981 - Army commander Andre Kolingba seizes power.
1993 - Ange-Felix Patasse wins presidential elections, ending 12 years of military rule.
2003 - Rebel leader and former army commander Francois Bozize seizes power.
2009 - Clashes between government and rebels are ongoing. UN Security Council agrees to creation of UN peace building office for CAR to address ongoing insecurity.
2012 November - New Seleka rebel coalition rapidly overruns north and center of country, and eventually the capital.
2013 December - With turmoil continuing in the country and rival Muslim and Christian fighters accused of killing hundreds of people, France steps up its deployment of troops to 1,600 in a bid to disarm the militias.
2014 April - UN Security Council authorizes a peacekeeping force of 12,000 troops.
2014 - Michel Djotodia - coup leader who headed the Seleka coalition - quits as president. Catherine Samba-Panza takes over as interim leader.
2015 February - The UN says that surging violence in the Central African Republic has forced tens of thousands to flee their homes since the beginning of the year to escape killings, rape and pillaging by militias.
2015 - Referendum on constitutional changes in November, followed by first round of presidential election.
2016 - Tension ahead of second round of presidential election, which however, passes off peacefully. Constitutional court had earlier annulled parliamentary election results, citing irregularities.

Previous Attempts to Resolve the Issue
The previous attempts to resolve the issue are mainly based on the problems that were already there which I will later deliberate on, but are not the core of the problem. This will later be discussed at the next chapter 'Possible solutions'.

The Central African Republic is one of the most UN interfered conflict area's ever. With over 12,000 peacekeeping forces being sent in the month of April in 2014. The UN and the AU have made military actions to solve the most violent and urging problems, which is of course a great thing. But it has not solved the issue yet.

The UN peacekeeping troops have made their presence and because of that the first ever democratic elections in the CAR were held back in 2015 and the country does not suffer from any rebel groups or armed militias anymore. But as I said earlier this is not what this country needs to go to the next level of a developed country.

Possible Solutions
The UN has made the first essential steps to make this country more developed. However this still has not solved the main problem of the Central African Republic. The main problem lies with reducing the tension between Christians and Muslims, improving it's economy and to give everyone a fair opportunity on a wealthy and healthy life. These standards still have not been met by the CAR's government and while these things stay the problems they are now the country will fall back in it's slump of rebelling military groups and armed militias, mainly because of the fact that they will not be happy by the way their country is being led.

What I really want to make clear is that it is essential that every single civilian is okay on how their country is being controlled and lead, if it's possible with the least international interference as possible partially because there is a process going on at the ICC where French soldiers are accused of the abuse of children and women. And because of that it made the CAR´s inhabitants distrustful to any international soldiers.

I hope that you have an idea on what is needed to make this process a success. Try to think about what the root of the problem is and how to solve it, or if your country is against helping this country why we should not interfere and why that is of any use. Good luck dear delegates.


  1. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2015/07/amnesty-muslims-erased-central-african-republic-150731083248166.html

  2. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-13150040

  3. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-13150044

  4. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ct.html

  5. http://www.enoughproject.org/conflicts/car

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