Evidence Table E31. Meditation intervention descriptions

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Evidence Table E31. Meditation intervention descriptions

Meditation Intervention


Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR)

A program devised of various formal and informal practices to cultivate moment to moment awareness. Practices include Hatha yoga and body scan to cultivate awareness of the body, and sitting meditation (including awareness of the breath, body, and mental state).

Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT)

A program that integrates components of cognitive-behavioral therapy and mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR). The program was originally developed to prevent depression relapse. In addition to MBSR techniques to help individuals focus on the present moment, MBCT includes education about depression and the link between thoughts, feelings and bodily sensations so that individuals can learn to observe these thoughts, feelings, and sensations that may contribute to depression without rumination.

Transcendental Meditation (TM)

A meditation technique whereby a person uses a mantra and repeatedly directs the mind to the mantra as the mind strays. With continual repetition of the mantra the actual mantra becomes secondary and the meditator becomes increasingly self-aware and in state of “restful alertness.”


A meditation technique to practice awareness of present moment experiences through several focal points: observation and awareness of the body, feelings, mind, and thought content.


A meditation technique that generally focuses on regulating awareness to the present moment. This generally includes the breath and counting from 1 to 10 with each exhalation.

Sahaj yoga

A form of meditation consisting of silent self-affirmations and breathing techniques that lead to a state of thoughtless awareness (alertness without unnecessary mental activity)

Meditation-Based Stress Management Program

A training program comprised of meditation, exercise, stretching, muscle buildup and relaxation, and hypnotic suggestion.

Modified MBCT

A program based on the original manual for MBCT but modified for individuals with tinnitus. The content on depression, which was not relevant to this population was excluded, and the number of sessions were reduced from 8 to 6 with adaptation to dealing with tinnitus rather than depression

Mindfulness Training Program

A mindfulness training program comprised of guided meditation with attention to body position, emotional state, interoceptive consciousness, and acceptance.

Mindfulness meditation program based on MBSR and MBCT adapted for caregivers

A program that includea didactics on stress, relaxation, and meditation, as well as meditation and mindfulness exercises (awareness of breathing, awareness of body sensation, awareness of cognitive and emotional experience), mindful movement and mindful awareness during other activities.

Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE)

An MBCT-adapted meditation program for alcohol dependence. The program involves mindful breathing and walking meditations, and exercises relating mindfulness principles to addiction-specific issues.

Mindfulness-Based Breathing Therapy (MBBT)

A program that combines the standard MBSR program with relaxation response training with a focus on a breath-centered approach.

Mindfulness-Based Stress and Pain Management Program

A mindfulness program based largely on MBSR but tailored to an irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) population by having them focus on IBS related-symptoms (e.g., focusing on sensations in the abdominal area)

Mindfulness Meditation Program for Stress Management

A condensed 4-week version of the traditional MBSR course (8 weeks), which taught the core MBSR components.

Mindfulness Training for Smoking Cessation

A program based on a previous mindfulness training manual for drug relapse prevention and adapted for smoking cessation. The focus was on present moment awareness and acceptance of cravings. Mindfulness practices included breath awareness meditation, walking meditation, and body scan, loving-kindness meditation, and mindfulness of daily activities.

Spirituality-Teaching Program

A program that teaches concepts related to spirituality and also includes breathing and visualization exercises, self-awareness using the senses, practices of gratitude, and acceptance and loving kindness meditation.

Adaptation of Mindfulness–Based Relapse Prevention Program (MBRP)

A program based on MBRP with several modifications. The sessions after the first session were delivered in 2 four-week modules that could be completed in either order. A session was added that specifically focused on working with anger as a trigger for stress and drug use, the yoga meditation was removed, and sessions were shortened to 1 hour.

Clinically Standardized Meditation (CSM)

A mantra-based meditation technique whereby subjects repeat a mantra in their minds for 20 minutes at a time (Carrington, 1978)

Mantra Meditation with variations

A program in which participants were taught the basic CSM (Clinically Standardized Meditation) technique (Carrington, 1978) in addition to several other mantra meditation variations. These included ‘mini-meditations’, a meditation with open eyes with a neutral gaze at a surface, a meditation on a candle flame with and without a mantra, counting of the breaths with a focus on air movement, and a breathing-paced meditation where subjects say the first syllable of their mantra on the inhalation and the second syllable during exhalation.

Spiritual mantra meditation

A program in which participants were provided with a manual with a list of various spiritual mantrams of various traditions in order to choose a mantram. They were also provided with methods to enhance mantram repitition, such as practicing “one-pointed attention and mindfulness while engaging in one task at a time, and intentionally slowing down mentally and behaviorally while using a mantram”. The course book also provided mantram meditation exercises.


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