Chapter 2 (history) the expansion of british power in india answer the following questions in one or two sentences

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5. Answer the following questions in one or two sentences.

(a) The Europeans were keen to trade with India as they were attracted by the legendary wealth of India. Some of the important European countries that traded with India were Portugal, Holland, Britain, France, and Denmark.

(b) Mir Qasim, the deposed Nawab of Bengal; Shah Alam II, the Mughal emperor; and Shuja-ud-Daula, the Nawab of Awadh; combined their forces and fought against the British in the Battle of Buxar.

(c) When a war of succession broke out in Hyderabad and the Carnatic, it led to Anglo– French rivalry in the Second Carnatic War. The EEIC and the FEIC supported opposing candidates in both regions. This was the cause of the Second Carnatic War.

(d) The Doctrine of Lapse was a policy of annexation introduced by Lord Dalhousie. According to it, if a ruler of a subsidiary state died without a natural heir to the throne, his kingdom would lapse or pass into British hands

(e) Lord Cornwallis set up a permanent police force in India. Each district was headed by a daroga while kotwals and chowkidars were also appointed in towns and villages. The District Superintendent supervised the administration of the police in the entire district.

6. Answer the following questions in four or five sentences.

(a) The significance of the Carnatic Wars is that they brought Anglo–French rivalry to the fore. The result was that there was a battle for supremacy and control between the two trading companies over Indian territories. By the end of the Third Carnatic War, the French had been defeated and the British emerged triumphant. The road was thus clear for the British to stake a claim for the Indian empire.

(b) After the Battle of Plassey, Mir Jafar became the Nawab of Bengal but when he could not meet the high revenue demands of the EEIC he was deposed in favour of his son-in-law, Mir Qasim. Mir Qasim did not prove to be as pliant as his father-in-law and brought about many changes that were unacceptable to the EEIC, especially the abolition of the dastaks. Hence, he was deposed and Mir Jafar placed on the throne once again. Mir Qasim then combined forces with the Nawab of the Awadh and the Mughal emperor. This led to the Battle of Buxar in 1764.

(c) The main features of the subsidiary alliance were the following: • Any Indian ruler accepting the subsidiary alliance had to keep British forces on his territory and pay for the upkeep of the troops. • If the ruler could not make payments, he/ she would have to cede territory to the British. • An official called the Resident would stay at the court of the ruler. • Rulers would have to give up control of their foreign affairs to the EEIC in return for the Company’s protection. • All non-English foreigners were expelled from the state of the ruler.

(d) The Civil Service was set up by the British to administer Indian territories. Lord Wellesley introduced the Fort William College in Calcutta to train civil servants, which was later replaced by the East India College in England. Initially, civil servants were nominated by the EEIC’s board of directors. From 1853 onwards, a competitive examination was held to select candidates. Indians were not allowed to compete for higher posts in the civil service.

(e) Warren Hastings and Lord Cornwallis took the initiative to institute a proper judicial system in India. In 1837, the Indian Penal Code and the Codes of Civil and Criminal Procedures were introduced. The Rule of Law was established, meaning that administration would be based on law. Another principle introduced was Equality before Law, which meant that all people, irrespective of caste, class, or gender, were equal before the law.

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