Cbc feature Of billion people in the world, billion are obese and billion are starving



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CBC feature





















Water acts to moderate Earth’s Temperature

  • Water acts to moderate Earth’s Temperature

  • Heat req’d to melt snow and evaporate liq.

  • High heat capacity: 1cal/gram/oC

  • Unique in that solid is less dense than liquid at 4oC: (ice floats!)



Moderates the planet

  • Moderates the planet













Record snowfalls of 2008 Winter are expected to produce a 1 foot rise in the average water level in the Great lakes

  • Record snowfalls of 2008 Winter are expected to produce a 1 foot rise in the average water level in the Great lakes

  • In a year, 25% of the problem from the last 15 years is corrected

  • 1” of rain ~ 1 foot of snow



Some lost by sublimation

  • Some lost by sublimation



Only net water gain to Great Lakes if source of snow is not “the lake effect”

  • Only net water gain to Great Lakes if source of snow is not “the lake effect”

  • El Nina in Pacific is good : cools NA and moisture evaporates from Ocean- net gain in water levels for NA





1969 River fire in Cleveland

  • 1969 River fire in Cleveland



PM Trudeau and Pres. Nixon, alarmed by 1969 fire on Cuyahoga River, sign on

  • PM Trudeau and Pres. Nixon, alarmed by 1969 fire on Cuyahoga River, sign on



US /Canada agree to “restore and maintain the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the waters of the Great Lakes Ecosystem”

  • US /Canada agree to “restore and maintain the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the waters of the Great Lakes Ecosystem”

  • Commit to rid GL’s of “persistent toxic substances”-ie those that linger and potentially poison food sources



Started in 1981-still going

  • Started in 1981-still going

  • 1987: emphasis placed on importance of human and aquatic ecosystem health

  • 43 “areas of concern”



Report commissioned by the IJC (oversees issues of GL management)

  • Report commissioned by the IJC (oversees issues of GL management)

  • 25 “areas of concern”

  • Outbreaks of Minimata disease: includes Cerebral Palsy due to Hg poisoning in Thunder Bay, Collingwood, Sarnia, Cornwall



Chlor-Alkali Plants: use Hg in making Cl2 and NaOH. Started in 1894

  • Chlor-Alkali Plants: use Hg in making Cl2 and NaOH. Started in 1894

  • 4 cities had large plants (1949-95). 742 tons released

  • Electrolysis of salt water: (Hg) used as an electrode

  • 2Cl- oxidized (LEO) to Cl2. OH- from reduction (GER) of water . H2 also formed.



2H2O------------------>>H2 + 2OH-

  • 2H2O------------------>>H2 + 2OH-

  • 2Cl- ------------------------>> Cl2 (g)

  • Chloride ion loses electrons, LEO

  • H+ ion in water gains electrons GER

  • Chlorine and OH- produced

  • Na+ is spectator ion (no change)



New tech is available, but not Ohio, Wisc.

  • New tech is available, but not Ohio, Wisc.



Health Canada knew in 1990’s

  • Health Canada knew in 1990’s

  • No public report-leaked in 2000

  • Gov’ts fear lawsuits and expensive cleanups

  • “there is a reluctance in both US and Canada to admit that there are ANY effects of pollutants on fish, wildlife and human health”





















Food for blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) : summer 2007

  • Food for blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) : summer 2007

  • Fertilizers, detergents enter natural waters





What are your views on

  • What are your views on

  • (i) the best Energy sources (and why)

  • (ii) solution to pollution



Some necessary steps

  • Some necessary steps

  • Population control: reduce/stabilize overall E and food demands

  • Nuclear power: Clean-low level radioactive waste buried deep in the ground (its origin); no C emissions. Oil has max 100 years left.

  • Make clean technology financially attractive (gov’t initiatives/grants)



Refuses to acknowledge the reality of nuclear power as the future

  • Refuses to acknowledge the reality of nuclear power as the future

  • France (highest ~60% nuclear) has cleanest air in Europe

  • Wind/solar/wave/biomass etc.OK for off grid applications, but not practical for constant large urban needs



Ont Gov’t plans new nuclear power facility

  • Ont Gov’t plans new nuclear power facility

  • Alberta considers nuclear power option despite “tar sands” resources

  • 1 barrel of oil used to produce 2 barrels in Tar sand project (CBC feature March 2008)

  • Huge CO2 emitter. Nuclear is the solution



Alberta tar sands: world’s largest oil resource outside Saudi Arabia

  • Alberta tar sands: world’s largest oil resource outside Saudi Arabia

  • BUT..requires a lot of Energy to extract it (~ 1 barrel of oil to produce 2 )

  • AND-massive environmental destruction



Deforestation

  • Deforestation

  • Tailing ponds



Most dangerous contaminant is naphthenic acid (PNAH with carboxylic acid bonded to it)

  • Most dangerous contaminant is naphthenic acid (PNAH with carboxylic acid bonded to it)

  • Process of extraction involves using vast quantities of hot water, naptha and paraffin in order to separate the sparingly soluble butumen from the tar sands



Each cubic meter of bitumen extracted produces 3-5 X the volume of aqueous “tailings” that must be stored

  • Each cubic meter of bitumen extracted produces 3-5 X the volume of aqueous “tailings” that must be stored

  • Area the size of Lake Ontario needed!-visible with naked eye from outer space

  • Also alkyl substituted PAH’s (carcinogenic) in these ponds



Fort Chipewan (1st nations ; downstream form tarsands projects)

  • Fort Chipewan (1st nations ; downstream form tarsands projects)

  • Greater incidence of cancer, lupus and MS since tarsands development started




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